INTRAPSYCHOLOGICAL FORCE-DYNAMIC INTERACTION: VERBS OF REFRAINING IN HAKKA
Lai, Huei-ling and Chiang, Shu-mei
In order to explore intrapsychological force-dynamic interaction, this study, adopting Talmy’s (2000a) force-dynamic framework, examines (i) how force is manifested in verbs of refraining in Hakka, and (ii) the correlation between the semantic content FORCE and the syntactic manifestation. From examinations of these verbs, three general points become clear. First, two major force-dynamic patterns are involved in the intrapsychological domain, an ONSET CAUSATION pattern (force of refraining in the blocking part > force of resistance in the desiring part), and an ONSET DESPITE pattern (force of refraining in the blocking part < force of resistance in the desiring part). Furthermore, in the intrapsychological domain, verbs of refraining can be divided into physical suppression and psychological repression. Finally, the correlation between the semantic component FORCE and its syntactic manifestation is demonstrated by the potential mode, verb-copying constructions and also adverbs of duration, evaluation and judgment, and the resultative complements. In adopting these verbs to study the intrapsychological force-dynamic interaction, this study modifies Talmy’s framework and also provides a fine-grained analysis for verbs of refraining in Hakka.