台灣語言學期刊

鑽石開放取用期刊(對著作者及讀者皆不收取任何費用)
ISSN: 1729-4649 (print); 1994-2559 (online)

馬來西亞柔佛州客家語的生命力

陳仕惠、何慧儀
此研究利用擴大世代失調分級表(EGIDS)考察了柔佛州客家語的生命力。有關語言熟練程度與語言選擇的問卷調查涉及了153位年齡介於15至30歲的客家青年。結果顯示客家語的生命力位於EGIDS中的6b級別(威脅級)。客家語仍然被使用於幾代人中面對面的交流,但它的使用人口正在流失中。客家語的身份為家庭語言,具有較弱的代際傳播能力。僅有8.50%的被調查者與他們的父母說客家語,以及33.33%的被調查者與他們的祖父母說客家語。客家青年被視為會說客家語的最年輕一代,但是客家語的使用率僅有35.95%。他們在各個場域都使用華語,除了也使用英語和馬來語的就業與教育場域。此外,華語也在家庭,友誼,以及宗教場域中佔據了主導地位。他們的客家語熟練程度適中,並且大多數人只能遵循日常談話的要點以及述說簡單的句子。客家血統與宗教背景影響着客家青年的客家語熟練程度以及客家語的使用量。

VITALITY OF HAKKA CHINESE IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA

Su-Hie Ting and Hui-Yee Hoo
This study examined the vitality of Hakka Chinese in Johor using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS). The questionnaire survey on language proficiency and language choice involved 153 Hakka youths aged 15-30. The results showed that the vitality of Hakka is at EGIDS Level 6b (Threatened). Hakka is still used for face-to-face communication within all generations, but it is losing users. The identity function of Hakka is that of a home language, with weak intergenerational transmission. Only 8.50% of the respondents speak Hakka with their parents, and 33.55% speak Hakka with their paternal grandparents. The Hakka youth are the youngest generation who can speak Hakka, but the percentage of Hakka usage is only 5.17%. They speak Mandarin in all domains, except employment and education domains where English and Standard Malay are also used. Mandarin also dominates in the family, friendship, and religious domains. Their Hakka proficiency is moderate, and a majority of them could only follow the main points of everyday conversation and speak simple sentences. Hakka parentage and religious background influence Hakka youths’ Hakka proficiency and Hakka usage.