Taiwan Journal of Linguistics

A Diamond Open Access Journal (free to authors and readers)
ISSN: 1729-4649 (print); 1994-2559 (online)


Miao-Hsia Chang
This paper investigates the diachrony of the verbs of volition ai and beh in Southern Min (SM). The data include historical SM texts (16th-19th century), folk songs in the late 19th to early 20th century, and contemporary natural Taiwanese Southern Min conversations. The results mainly mark two stages of the development of ai and beh: historical (before 1900) and contemporary SM. Since the 16th century (Ming Dynasty), ai has been used as a verb of volition indicating love, intention or hope. As for historical ai, it marked future, specialized however for predicting an adverse future. In contemporary SM, a sense of necessity emerged with the use of ai denoting general agreement among people. Seven senses are attributed to historical beh: want/intention/hope, future, excessiveness, necessity, proximity and conditionality. In contemporary SM, the indication of the want of an entity has become a less preferred use, and necessity is only preserved when indicating puzzlement and helplessness. The diachronic developments of ai and beh demonstrate an interplay of metaphorization and metonymization (Traugott and Dasher 2002:27). Metaphorization contributes first to the semantic shift of ai and beh from “to want; to love” to “to intend to” and a concurrent categorical change from lexical verb into auxiliary, and second, to the evolution of future. Metonymization activates an even wider range of uses and meaning change, including the pragmatic strengthening of interpretations such as excessiveness ('beh'), necessity ('ai,' 'beh'), proximity ('beh') and conditional ('beh'), and prediction of an undesirable future ('ai'). Key words: Southern Min; verbs of volition; grammaticalization; diachronic development; metaphorization; metonymization

隱喻化及轉喻化: 閩南語意願動詞的歷史演變

張妙霞/ 國立臺灣師範大學
本文研究閩南語意願動詞「愛」與「卜/欲」的歷史語意演變。本文語料包含明清時代歌仔戲文,十九世紀末至二十世紀初歌仔冊,以及當代閩南語口語自然語料。結果顯示,「愛」與「卜/欲」的語意演變可以十九世紀末至二十世紀初為界限,分為兩個階段:明清用法及當代用法。自明代迄今,「愛」最主要的語意為表達喜好,意願,或希望。在明清時代,「愛」亦可標記未來可能發生的動作或事件;然而,「愛」所指的未來事件僅限於不利談話者的事件;此用法在十九世紀末逐漸消失。現代閩南語中,「愛」發展出表達『需要』的語意;此功能用於標記後接的動作;同時,此動作通常是一般人所認同需要去從事的活動或動作。明清時代的「卜/欲」主要有七個用法:欲望/意願/希望,未來,過度,需要,接近,以及條件。在現代閩南語中,『欲望』的語意已少用於對實物的想望或需要,而主要用於後接主事者所欲從事的動作。以上「愛」與「卜/欲」的語意變化可說是受到隱喻化及轉喻化的交互作用所產生的演變。隱喻化主要促成「愛」與「卜/欲」由喜愛具體事物到從事某活動的意願;在此同時,「愛」與「卜/欲」也從動詞轉換為近似助動詞的用法。此外,「愛」與「卜/欲」也演化出『未來』的語意。轉喻化則主要促成因語境強化而形成的語意:過度(卜/欲),需要(愛與卜/欲),接近(卜/欲),條件(卜/欲),以及不利談話者的未來事件的標記(愛)。 關鍵詞:閩南語、意願動詞、語法化、歷史演變、隱喻化、轉喻化