台灣語言學期刊

鑽石開放取用期刊(對著作者及讀者皆不收取任何費用)
ISSN: 1729-4649 (print); 1994-2559 (online)

「向」之語意延伸及其語意網狀系統

陳美秀,張榮興/ 國立中正大學
本論文旨在探討認知機制(cognitive processes)和動作事件(motion event)的主要成分對中文多義詞的形成所造成的影響,主要討論兩個議題。第一個議題討論中文多義詞「向」之眾多意義間錯綜複雜的關係。本文認為「向」最早擁有的字義透過五種認知機制:語意擴大、跨越狀態、突顯、隱喻與觀察點的轉移,延伸出許多不同的意義,形成關係緊密的語意網狀系統(semantic network)。第二個議題討論為何「向」可同時用來標示目標(goal)及來源(source)兩個相對的意義。本文認為這兩個相對意義的形成是由於意象圖示中的觀察點轉移所造成的:當觀察點從主體位移的起點轉移到主體位移的終點時,「向」由標示主體位移的終點(目標)轉變為標示主體位移的起點(來源),因而產生了兩個相對的意義。 關鍵字:多義詞、隱喻、動作事件、攝取角度

THE MEANING EXTENSION OF 'XIANG' AND ITS POLYSEMY NETWORK

Mei-hsiu Chen and Jung-hsing Chang
Based on the idea that cognitive processes play an important role in linguistic analysis, this paper focuses on two main issues. The first issue is concerned with the nature of the intertwined relations of the various meanings of the Chinese polysemous word 'xiang' and how these different meanings are extended from the original meaning found in ancient Chinese texts. The relations between these meanings can be accounted for in terms of five cognitive processes: generalization, extendability across motive states, profile, metaphor, and change in the position of the perspective point, all of which constitute links within the semantic network of 'xiang.' The second issue is concerned with why 'xiang' has two opposite meanings, i.e., goal marker and source marker. It is proposed that the two opposite meanings result from a change in the position of the perspective point in a given schema. That is, by changing the perspective point from that of the starting point of the movement of the Figure to the endpoint of the movement, the Figure, which moves from the starting point to the endpoint, is changed from being seen as leaving the observer to being seen as getting closer to the observer. Key words: polysemy, metaphor, motion event, perspective