台灣語言學期刊

鑽石開放取用期刊(對著作者及讀者皆不收取任何費用)
ISSN: 1729-4649 (print); 1994-2559 (online)

鄒語實現態標記之探討

黃宣範 黃惠如 / 國立台灣大學
本文觀察鄒語自然言談語料中,實現(realis)與非實現(irrealis)事件在不同句法環境下的標記情形。在一般相信應標記為非實現態的很多句法環境下,鄒語「非實現態」之助動詞並不出現;相反地,實現態與否是由整個句構(construction)來標記。因此其所顯示的語法功能比較偏向區態,而不是作實現態與非實現態的區別。換言之,鄒語的「非實現態」助動詞是用來標記「未來」;鄒語助動詞不應視為系統性的標記事件的實現否。

ON THE STATUS OF REALITY MARKING IN TSOU

Huang, Shuanfan and Huang, Huei-ju
In this paper we investigate, on the basis of corpus data, how Tsou marks ‘realis’and ‘irrealis’ events in a number of syntactic environments. In environments commonly believed to attract ‘irrealis’ markers we show that ‘irrealis’ auxiliary verbs are sharply limited to just one functional domain, namely future potential events. But use of irrealis markers in Tsou to mark future potential events is largely predictable on universal grounds. We therefore argue that although irrealis auxiliary verbs in Tsou can be used to indicate potential and unactualized events, this is best seen as a consequence of their function as tense-aspect markers rather than as a reflex of their function as reality markers and that it would be wrong to continue to assume that the auxiliary verb system in Tsou (and perhaps in all of the other Formosan languages) is a system for marking reality. Given these findings, we propose to reconceptualize the auxiliary verbs in Tsou as follows: the auxiliary verbs in Tsou encode temporal and aspectual information, but not reality information. Where they appear to mark irrealis potential events, the appearance is deceptive and is simply a manifestation of their functions as tense-aspect markers to code futurity. What has been claimed to mark irrealis in Tsou on closer investigation can be shown to be either a consequence of the functions of tense-aspect markers in Tsou, or of the functions of the construction as a whole in supplying the ‘irrealis’ interpretation.