台灣語言學期刊

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ISSN: 1729-4649 (print); 1994-2559 (online)

台語基本否定詞「毋」、「無」的選 用原理及教學

劉承賢
本文主張,台語的基本否定詞「毋」、「無」的選用是有其原理原則的,首先,本文同意 Li (1971)、Lin (1974)及鄭良偉(1997)的看法,主張「毋」應分為帶「決意」意涵及單純否定的兩個獨立詞項,並進一步主張,台語除了基本否定詞綴「毋 2」以外,帶「決意」意涵否定詞「毋 1」、「無」已完成「單詞化」,在詞彙分化的作用下,造成否定詞選用的排他性。這排他性的背後,反映的是句法階層關係中不同否定詞的「否定範域」,以及背後的詞彙句位分佈,循此,本文主張單只選用「毋 2」的詞項,就是語法化程度較高,位於「完成貌」動貌詞組(含)以上的動詞性成份。除提出分析外,本文並舉出教學步驟及原則,供教學現場參考。

台語基本否定詞「毋」、「無」的選 用原理及教學(THE SELECTION OF NEGATIVE WORDS IN TAIWANESE: THE PRINCIPLES AND PEDAGOGY)

Seng-hian Lau
This study points out the principles behind the selection of negative words between m̄ and bô in Taiwanese. Firstly, it espouses the analysis in Li 1971, Lin 1974, and Cheng 1997, that volitional m̄ and non-volitional m̄ should be considered as two separate lexical items. Furthermore, as argued in this paper, apart from the primitive non-volitional negative prefix m̄, the volitional m̄ and bô have been lexicalized and are internally opaque. Due to the emergence of new negative words, consequent division of labor is revealed in different negation scopes, reflecting the syntactic distribution of verbal elements that employ a negative word accordingly. It is also shown that the so-called ‘exceptional verbs’ in the previous studies, which only use m̄ to negate, are those verbal elements which have been grammaticalized and are merged under projections higher than the perfective aspect projection. In addition to the analysis, this paper also provides pedagogical guidelines of this issue for Taiwanese language teachers.